Credit: ICEYE

ICEYE is a Finnish microsatellite manufacturer that was founded in 2014 as a spin-off of Aalto University's University Radio Technology Department. ICEYE is designed to provide near-real-time SAR imagery using SAR sensor technology. Each satellite of the ICEYE constellation carries an X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), allowing the instruments to see through darkness, clouds and rain to observe Earth at all times. ICEYE satellites, each with a mass of 85 kg, are side-looking X-band SAR sensors utilizing active phased array antenna (electronically steerable) technology. It is both right- and left-looking and capable of acquiring satellite imagery of Earth using stripmap, spotlight and ScanSAR imaging modes. The satellites are in sun-synchronous orbit at an inclination of 97.7° with an orbital frequency around 96 minutes. In 2015, ICEYE demonstrated that synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) technology on a smallsat satellite could be used to monitor hazardous ice features such as pack ice. In October 2019, ICEYE started offering commercial access to its 1-metre resolution SAR-imagery, and operated 3 SAR satellites. In August 2022, during the Russian invasion of Ukraine, ICEYE signed a contract with the Serhiy Prytula Charity Foundation that would give the Armed Forces of Ukraine access to one of its satellites. After their launch in May, 2022 two satellites were transfered to the Brazilian Air Force as Carcará 1 and 2.

ICEYE X1 & ICEYE X2 satellites info

Nation: Finland
Company/operator: ICEYE
Platform/configuration: ICEYE-bus
  • 70 kg (ICEYE X1)
  • 80 kg (ICEYE X2)
  • 495 km - 506 km (ICEYE X1)
  • 570 km - 587 km (ICEYE X2)
  • X-band SAR
Antenna size: 3.2 m x 0.4 m
Purpose: Earth monitoring
Launch vehicles:
  • Falcon 9 (ICEYE X2)



ICEYE satellites launch overview

Flight no. Date launch Rocket Launch base Orbit Satellites launched Mission succes?
1 12/01/2018 PSLV-XL Satish Dhawan Space Centre (India) 500 km 1 (ICEYE X1)


2 03/12/2018

Vandenberg Air Force Base (USA) 570 km 1 (ICEYE X2)


3 05/05/2019

Launch Complex 1 500 km 1 (ICEYE X3)


4 05/07/2019 Soyuz-2-1b Fregat Vostochny Cosmodrome (Russia) 580 km 2 (ICEYE X4 & X5)


5 28/09/2020 Soyuz-2-1b Fregat Plesetsk Cosmodrome (Russia) 580 km 2 (ICEYE X6 & X7)


6 24/01/2021

Cape Canaveral (USA) 580 km 3 (ICEYE X8, X9, X10)


7 30/06/2021

Cape Canaveral (USA) 580 km 3 (ICEYE X11, X12, X13)


8 30/06/2021

Cape Canaveral (USA) 580 km 4 (ICEYE X11, X12, X13, X15)


9 13/01/2022

Cape Canaveral (USA) 580 km 2 (ICEYE X14 & X16)


10 25/05/2022

Cape Canaveral (USA) 580 km 5 (ICEYE X17, X18, X19, X20, X24)


11 03/01/2023

Cape Canaveral (USA) 580 km 3 (ICEYE X21, X22, X27)


12 12/06/2023

Cape Canaveral (USA) 580 km 4 (ICEYE X23, X25, X26, X30)


13 11/11/2023

Cape Canaveral (USA) 580 km 4 (ICEYE X31, X32, X34, X35)


ICEYE data samples

ICEYE data

Images: ICEYE

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Kris Christiaens

This article was published by FutureSpaceFlight founder and chief editor Kris Christiaens. Kris Christiaens has been passionate and fascinated by spaceflight and space exploration all his life and has written hundreds of articles on space projects, the commercial space industry and space missions over the past 20 years for magazines, books and websites. In late 2021, he founded the website FutureSpaceFlight with the goal of promoting new space companies and commercial space projects and compiling news of these start-ups and companies on one website.